We are used to understanding the Qur'an as the "Islamic text" par excellence, an assumption which, when viewed historically, is not evident at all. More than twenty years before it rose to the rank of Islamic Scripture, the Qur'an was an oral proclamation addressed by the Prophet Muhammad to pre-Islamic listeners, for the Muslim community had not yet been formed. We might best describe these listeners as individuals educated in late antique culture, be they Arab pagans familiar with the monotheistic religions of Judaism and Christianity or syncretists of these religions, or learned Jews and Christians whose presence is reflected in the Medinan suras. The interactive communication process between Muhammad and these groups brought about an epistemic turn in Arab Late Antiquity: with the Qur'anic discovery of writing as the ultimate authority, the nascent community attained a new "textual coherence" where Scripture, with its valorisation of history and memory, was recognised as a guiding concept. It is within this new biblically imprinted world view that central principles and values of the pagan Arab milieu were debated. This process resulted in a twin achievement: the genesis of a new scripture and the emergence of a community. Two great traditions, then, the Biblical, transmitted by both Jews and Christians, and the local Arabic, represented in Ancient Arabic poetry, appear to have established the field of tension from which the Qur'an evolved; it is both Scripture and Poetry which have produced and shaped the new Muslim community.
Since its 'discovery' some 150 years ago, thinking about endometriosis has changed. With current estimates identifying it as more common than breast and ovarian cancer, this chronic, incurable gynaecological condition has emerged as a 'modern epidemic', distinctive in being perhaps the only global epidemic peculiar to women. This timely book addresses the scholarly neglect of endometriosis by the social sciences, offering a critical assessment of one of the world's most common - and burdensome - health problems for women. Drawing on a range of theoretical perspectives, including science and technology studies, feminist theory and queer theory, The Makings of a Modern Epidemic explores the symbolic, discursive and material dimensions of the condition. It demonstrates how shifts in thinking about gender, the body, race, modernity and philosophies of health have shaped the epidemic, and produces a compelling account of endometriosis as a highly politicised and grossly neglected disease. Drawing upon rich empirical data, including in-depth interviews with women who have endometriosis and medical and self-help literature, this ground-breaking volume will appeal to scholars and students across the social sciences with interests in gender studies, science and technology studies and the sociology and anthropology of medicine, health and the body.
In barely forty years of life Martin Luther King (1929-1968) distinguished himself as one of the greatest social reformers of modern times: civil rights leader, defender of nonviolence in the struggle of desegregation, champion of the poor, anti-war proponent, and broad-minded visionary of an interrelated world of free people. His many verbal and written communications in the form of sermons, speeches, interviews, letters, essays, and several books are replete with Bible proverbs as Love your enemies, He who lives by the sword shall perish by the sword, and Man does not live by bread alone as well as folk proverbs as Time and tide wait for no man, Last hired, first fired, No gain without pain, and Making a way out of no way. He also delighted in citing quotations that have become proverbs, to wit No man is an island, All men are created equal, and No lie can live forever. King recycles these bits of traditional wisdom in various contexts, varying his proverbial messages as he addresses the multifaceted issues of civil rights. His rhetorical prowess is thus informed to a considerable degree by his effective use of his repertoire of proverbs which he frequently uses as leitmotifs or amasses into set pieces of fixed phrases to be employed repeatedly.
Walt Whitman was an American poet, essayist and journalist well known in his time for his famousLeaves of Grass collection of poetry. A humanist, Whitman was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works, making him one of the most influential American poets in history. Known as the father of free verse, his work was very controversial in its time, described as obscene for its overt sexuality.
The Willie Lynch Letter and The Making of A Slave is an address purportedly delivered by a certain Willie Lynch to an audience on the bank of the James River in Virginia in the year 1712 regarding control of African American slaves within the colony. Some have considered the Willie Lynch Letter and The Making of A Slave to be a hoax that was designed to fuel discrimination & racism in the United States by touching on a very sensitive and negative part of history in America. The letter is said to be a verbatim account of a short speech given by a slave owner, in which he tells other slave masters that he has discovered the secret to controlling African American slaves by setting them against one another.